50 Famous Paintings of all Art History

Many famous paintings have captivated art lovers and historians alike, each with its unique story and history of creation, and continue to resonate with audiences today. From the enigmatic smile of the Mona Lisa to the haunting imagery of The Scream, these paintings have left a lasting impression on viewers. They represent some of the finest examples of artistic skill and creativity and have become cultural touchstones that have influenced countless artists and art lovers. They have become enduring symbols of human expression and creativity and remind us of the power of art to inspire, challenge, and provoke us. Their legacy will continue to endure for centuries to come. A compilation of renowned painters and their global artworks entails a brief explanation of these distinguished paintings to appreciate their significance in art history. Here is a list of 50 renowned artists' paintings:

50. Bal du Moulin de la Galette

50. Bal du Moulin de la Galette-0

Date: 1876 Regarded as a well-known work of art in the genre of Impressionism, this painting depicts a typical Sunday afternoon scene at the Moulin de la Galette in Montmartre, Paris, where working-class Parisians dressed up and indulged in dancing, drinking, and eating galettes until late in the night during the 19th century. Amongst all the famous paintings, this masterpiece is exhibited at the Musée d'Orsay in Paris, France.

49. Le Déjeuner Sur l’Herbe

49. Le Déjeuner Sur l’Herbe-0

Date: 1862–1863 Edouard Manet took inspiration from The Pastoral Concert and The Judgment of Paris, a 16th-century artwork, to create this masterpiece. This large-scale painting has become one of Manet's most celebrated works of art and a landmark piece of modern art. The artist chose to exhibit this painting at the Salon des Refusés, as the Paris Salon jury had rejected it due to its controversial nature. A painting featuring a nude woman picnicking with two fully clothed men in a rural setting proved challenging for the artist and its audience. By depicting an everyday scene on such a grand scale, Manet legitimized ordinary subjects and paved the way for Impressionists like Claude Monet and Auguste Renoir to create their masterpieces, such as Water Lilies and The Luncheon of the Boating Party. This moving painting is displayed at the Musée d'Orsay in Paris, France.

48. Creation of Adam

48. Creation of Adam-0

Date: 1508 to 1512 A section of the Sistine Chapel's ceiling is adorned with a fresco painting called The Creation of Adam. Depicting a biblical story from the Book of Genesis, this painting portrays God giving life to Adam, the first man, with both figures reaching out with their arms and fingers almost touching. It is considered one of history's most recognizable religious images and is regarded as Michelangelo's most significant and renowned artwork. While interpreting historical paintings in a modern context can be challenging, Michelangelo's extensive knowledge of human anatomy suggests to art historians that every element in this painting has a specific purpose. Due to its uniqueness and intricacy, The Creation of Adam is ranked the 10th most famous painting ever.

47. The Kiss

47. The Kiss-0

Estimated date: 1907 to 1908 This painting depicts a couple locked in a passionate embrace, their bodies entwined in intricate decorative robes. The artist drew inspiration from Byzantine art when he created "The Kiss," regarded as the highest point of his most successful period. "The Kiss" is the peak of the artist's "Golden period." This widely famous painting is housed in the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere museum in Austria and is widely regarded as a masterpiece of the early modern period. It is considered an emblematic work of the Jugendstil or Viennese Art Nouveau movement and is renowned as Gustav Klimt's most celebrated piece of art.

46. Mona Lisa

46. Mona Lisa-0

Estimated date: 1503 to 1519 Leonardo Da Vinci's masterpiece, the Mona Lisa, is the most famous and expensive painting ever sold. It is arguably the most recognizable artwork in the world. The reasons for the painting's fame are a combination of chance circumstances and the painting's inherent appeal. Leonardo famously believed that art is never truly finished, and he worked on this painting for 20 years, taking it with him everywhere he went. The Mona Lisa gained even more notoriety in 1911 when it was stolen and hidden for two years by a former Louvre employee. Today, the Mona Lisa is housed in the Louvre Museum in Paris, France, home to many other famous paintings.

45. The Storm On The Sea Of Galilee

45. The Storm On The Sea Of Galilee-0

Date: 1633 One of Rembrandt's most dynamic and dramatic artworks is believed to be Christ in the Storm on the Sea of Galilee. This painting, the artist's only seascape, depicts a biblical scene where nature is pitted against human vulnerability. Despite the Storm, Jesus appears calm and unbothered, representing faith in adversity. The large-scale image profoundly impacts viewers, immersing them in an unfolding pictorial drama. The painting is admired for depicting the sacred history and vivid brushstrokes that bring the canvas to life. Unfortunately, the artwork was robbed from the Museum (Isabella Stewart Gardner) on March 18, 1990, and remains missing.

44. The Great Wave off Kanagawa

44. The Great Wave off Kanagawa-0

Date: 1820–1831 The Great Wave by Hokusai is an internationally recognized artwork from Japan that has served as a source of inspiration for numerous contemporary artists. It includes a large mural in Moscow that was created in its honor. The painting depicts the area surrounding Mount Fuji during a storm with a large rogue wave in the foreground, often mistakenly thought to be a tsunami. The image is notable for its rich blue tones that create subtle gradations and dramatic composition. While the painting is calm, the context is dark, with fishermen struggling to survive against unpredictable nature. Even though it has been around for nearly two centuries, authentic copies of The Great Wave are present in prominent museums across the globe, such as the British Museum, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

43. The Sleeping Gypsy

43. The Sleeping Gypsy-0

Date: 1897–1897 "The Sleeping Gypsy" draws inspiration from an earlier era, representing modernism's reflection on pre industrial times. The artwork portrays a peaceful, sleeping Romany woman with dark skin while a large lion curiously sniffs her, creating a mesmerizing effect. The simplistic geometric patterns and dreamy ambiance highlight Rousseau's impressive imagination as an illustrator. Rousseau's peers held this beautiful painting in high esteem. It is exhibited at the MoMA (The Museum of Modern Art) in New York City.

42. Olympia

42. Olympia-0

Date: 1863 Manet's famous artwork, Olympia, was not publicly displayed until two years after its completion. It was deemed highly controversial as it portrayed a naked female. The painting depicts a bare-skinned woman being offered flowers by her attendant. During the exhibition, Olympia faced several threats due to its contentious nature, prompting additional safety measures by the Salon. Nowadays, this painting is showcased at Musée d'Orsay in Paris, France.

41. No.5, 1948

41. No.5, 1948-0

Date: 1948 This masterpiece of Abstract Expressionism combines various colors and abstract shapes. It has a well-balanced composition of paint consisting of splatters, lines, and shapes. This painting is one of the most iconic artworks of the 20th century. Jackson Pollock utilized innovative techniques to convey his emotions through colors and lines. Instead of traditional brushstrokes, he opted for drips and splashes to create impromptu masterpieces guided by his intuition and emotions. This approach caused a sensation in the art world. This artwork is currently part of a private collection in New York.

40. Van Gogh Self-Portrait (Without Beard)

40. Van Gogh Self-Portrait (Without Beard)-0

Date: 1889 Vincent van Gogh's Self-Portrait without Beard is undoubtedly one of the most remarkable paintings in history. Despite painting numerous portraits previously, this particular portrait is arguably his most renowned, as it portrays him without his signature beard. Through a letter, Van Gogh communicated to his brother, Theo, the challenge of self-awareness and the difficulty of painting oneself. The last self-portrait he created is now exhibited at the Museum of d'Orsay in Paris, France.

39. Liberty Leading the People

39. Liberty Leading the People-0

Date: 1830 This painting is not related to the French Revolution, as commonly believed by many. It commemorates the July Revolution of 1830, which overthrew King Charles X of France. This symbolic artwork exemplifies the Romantic art style, portraying a woman carrying the Tricolour French flag as the symbol of revolution. Behind her is a group of people from different societal strata marching toward freedom. The artwork has served as a source of inspiration for other creative works, such as Victor Hugo's novel Les Misérables and the Statue of Liberty. Liberty Leading the People has been exhibited at the Louvre Museum in Paris since 2013.

38. The Large Bathers

38. The Large Bathers-0

Date: 1898–1905 This painting represents the most extensive and final work of Cézanne's lifelong exploration, and its unfinished state gives it a sense of purity and serenity. The abstract depiction of nude women creates a feeling of tension and density in the painting. The atmosphere is strange and beautiful, with a primarily bluish landscape and delicately drawn figures. Despite its unpolished state, "The Large Bathers" remains a masterpiece of modern art, influenced by the works of Titian and Peter Paul Rubens. Other famous paintings, such as Picasso's "Les Demoiselles D'Avignon," may have inspired this artwork. It is on display at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in the United States.

37. Nude Descending a Staircase

37. Nude Descending a Staircase-0

Date: 1912 This artwork, created by Marcel Duchamp and Rrose Sélavy, is a well-known example of Modernist art and has gained worldwide recognition. The painting portrays a figure in motion descending a narrow staircase, which caused controversy and anger among the public due to its departure from traditional European art. However, this scandal propelled Duchamp into the American art scene, leading to its success. In 1912, the Cubists refused to display the painting at Salon des Indépendants due to its unconventional style before it gained popularity in America. It is currently exhibited at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in the United States.

36. Nighthawks

36. Nighthawks-0

Date: 1942 The painting portrays four figures in a diner, each engaged in their activities, showcasing the feeling of isolation in an urban setting. Despite the loneliness depicted in the painting, none of the characters seem to interact with each other. The diner was located in Hopper's Greenwich Village neighborhood, which has since been demolished. Some art experts believe Vincent van Gogh's Café Terrace at Night may have inspired the painting. This artwork is exhibited at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.

35. The Third of May

35. The Third of May-0

Date: 1814 Francisco Goya was a renowned Spanish painter who lived in the 19th century and was influenced by Napoleon's defeat by Spanish troops. The painting portrays the theme of freedom, particularly in the context of Spain's tumultuous past. It depicts Spanish rebels standing up against Napoleon's soldiers and being killed. The painting is expertly crafted, using light and shadow to captivate the audience. Goya proposed the artwork to the provisional government of Spain, which commissioned it. It is now displayed at the Museo del Prado in Madrid, Spain.

34. The Son of Man

34. The Son of Man-0

Date: 1964 The artwork portrays a man wearing a bowler hat and an overcoat standing in front of a wall while the sea and a cloudy sky are visible in the background. The face of the man is obscured by a green apple that floats in front of him, but his eyes are visible above the edge of the apple. Magritte worked on this painting in 1946, utilizing his realistic and impressionistic styles. The Son of Man has become one of the most recognizable images of Surrealism. This painting is part of a private collection and is rarely exhibited publicly.

33. Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I

33. Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I-0

Date: 1903-1907 The Lady in Gold is a well-known portrait created by Gustav Klimt during his Golden period, characterized by the use of gold and gilded elements in his art. According to reports, the painting was commissioned by the subject's husband. Unfortunately, during the 1940s, the Nazis took possession of the painting and renamed it The Woman in Gold, erasing any connection to the Jewish family's name. After eight years, the painting was returned to the family with the assistance of Bloch-Bauer heirs. Nowadays, this masterpiece is exhibited at the Neue Galerie in New York City.

32. Wanderer Above The Sea Of Fog

32. Wanderer Above The Sea Of Fog-0

Date: 1818 The painting is a prime example of the Romanticism movement, emphasizing the intense and emotional focus on nature. Friedrich's art significantly shaped the Romantic movement with its themes of individualism, subjectivity, spirituality, and love for nature. 'Wanderer above the Sea of Fog' is considered one of the most significant paintings ever, as Friedrich used the landscape to express profound experiences. The young figure depicted in the painting, which is thought to be a self-portrait, has fiery red hair similar to that of the artist. While the painting is unrealistic, Friedrich pieced together different places he visited to create the final composition. The artwork can be viewed at the Hamburger Kunsthalle museum in Germany.

31. Impression, Sunrise

31. Impression, Sunrise-0

Date: 1872 Monet painted Impression, Sunrise in his hometown of Le Havre, France, and it is believed that he completed the artwork in one sitting. The artwork in question is one of six paintings in a series that portrays the port from different perspectives, including at dawn, during the day, at dusk, in the dark, from the water, and in the artist's hotel room. Impression, Sunrise explicitly depicts the view from Monet's hotel room at daybreak. The artwork is a natural representation of the town's docks, focusing on the sun's effects on the sea. Once regarded as an unfinished and abstract work, it is now recognized as the catalyst for modern art and a pivotal moment in the development of Impressionism. This painting can be seen at the Musée Marmottan Monet in Paris.

30. Primavera

30. Primavera-0

Date: 1477–1482 Primavera, created by Botticelli, is one of western art's most famous and controversial paintings. It is also the largest panel painting in tempera paint produced by the artist. Although the painting's history remains unclear, it depicts a group of mythological figures. On the far left of the painting stands Mercury, holding his staff and dispersing the winter clouds to make way for spring. Primavera is widely regarded as a masterpiece of historical painting, and it is displayed at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy.

29. The Persistence of Memory

29. The Persistence of Memory-0

Date: 1931 The Persistence of Memory is an iconic work of the Spanish artist and Surrealist figure. This painting has come to represent the entire Surrealist movement. It portrays a bleak shoreline covered in melting clocks, creating an eerie landscape with remarkable accuracy. Instead of creating a fantastical world with hasty brushstrokes and arbitrary colors, Dalí painted familiar objects in unfamiliar ways. It is believed that Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity inspired this eccentric piece. Unsurprisingly, this painting has made it onto the list of the most famous artworks ever. The painting is a significant attraction for visitors worldwide at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

28. Las Meninas

28. Las Meninas-0

Date: 1656 This painting, which showcases the court of King Philip IV of Spain, is considered the ninth most famous painting in the world. The court portrait painting depicts a Spanish princess and her attendants and has become a subject of great debate in art history. This painting holds immense importance in the history of Western art and is widely considered one of the most significant works of art. The painting, Las Meninas, is enigmatic and has an unconventional yet traditional allure, making it one of the most widely discussed paintings ever. It is housed at the famous and extensive Prado Museum and is not only Diego Velázquez's most famous painting of people but also one of his most significant.

27. The Birth of Venus

27. The Birth of Venus-0

Estimated date: 1485 This artwork, located at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy, is considered the most incredible historical painting due to its unique and controversial style. Botticelli's painting, The Birth of Venus, played a significant role in reviving interest in the traditional Greek culture and early Renaissance style. The painting features the Goddess of Love emerging from a large scallop shell, creating a striking figure. It is considered the giant canvas created during the Renaissance period in Florence. Interestingly, Botticelli chose to use canvas instead of the traditional wood panels popular during this period. Experts think the Medici family, known for their appreciation of art, may have commissioned the painting.

26. The Starry Night

26. The Starry Night-0

Date: 1889 This painting is often considered the artist's most significant work and continues to captivate viewers with its timeless and universal appeal. The Starry Night features striking blues and yellows and a dreamy, swirling atmosphere that has fascinated artists for generations. Van Gogh created this masterpiece while battling depression and paranoia at the Saint-Paul-de-Mausole asylum near Saint-Remy-de-Provence. After his death, Van Gogh became one of the most well-known painters in Western art history. This widely recognized painting is displayed at The Museum of Modern Art in New York.

25. Lady With An Ermine

25. Lady With An Ermine-0

Date: 1489–1490 Leonardo Da Vinci's renowned artwork depicts a half-length portrait of a woman painted in oil on a wooden panel. The woman in the portrait, Cecilia Gallerani, is identified by her turned to face towards her left while her body is slightly facing to the right. She is seen holding an ermine in her arms and is dressed modestly, indicating her social status. The completion of this masterpiece by Da Vinci has sparked various speculations. This portrait is considered one of the most famous and is housed in multiple locations in Poland, including the Princes Czartoryski Museum, Wawel Royal Castle, and National Museum in Krakow.

24. Christina’s World

24. Christina’s World-0

Estimated date: 1948 One of the most renowned American painters of the 20th century is known for his realistic depictions of rural landscapes. One of his most famous works is "Christina's World," which portrays a young woman in a pastel dress lying in a grassy field and gazing at a distant farmhouse with an intense, alert expression. Although the painting appears simple, its title suggests it has more profound psychological significance, making it more of a psychological landscape than a portrait. The woman in the painting, Christina, suffered from a muscular and nervous disorder and was known personally to the artist, Wyeth. This painting can be viewed at The Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

23. The Swing

23. The Swing-0

Date: 1767-1769 Jean-Honoré Fragonard's 18th-century oil painting, The Happy Accidents of the Swing, is a well-known masterpiece from the Rococo era. This masterpiece is widely regarded as one of the most notable works of Fragonard's career. While the painting may appear innocent at first glance, Fragonard incorporated provocative symbolism that provides a deeper insight into the decadent world. Despite the reluctance of other artists, Fragonard embraced this commission, and this flirtatious and light-hearted painting propelled his career to great success in this genre. This famous painting is now held at the Wallace Collection in London, United Kingdom.

22. Irises

22. Irises-0

Date: 1889 Van Gogh's painting of a bouquet of iris flowers, with a blue appearance but originally vivid purple, is one of many of his works. It is believed to have been created towards the end of his life, just before his death from a self-inflicted gunshot wound. In 1987, the painting became the most expensive in history, selling for almost $54 million at an auction. Today, it can be viewed at the J. Paul Getty Museum.

21. Hope II

21. Hope II-0

Date: 1907–1908 The painting shows a woman with a covered head looking down at her pregnant belly while three other women below her lower their heads, seemingly mourning or praying for the child's fate. Although the artist named the painting Vision, it depicts a balance of birth, death, and sensuality. The woman's robe is decorated with a striking gold pattern, which adds to the painting's decorative beauty. It is displayed at The Museum of Modern Art and is considered one of the greatest paintings ever.

20. Sistine Chapel Ceiling

20. Sistine Chapel Ceiling-0

Date: 1508–1512 The Sistine Chapel is considered a supreme example of High Renaissance art, commissioned by Pope Julius II and taking Michelangelo four years to complete the fresco. Michelangelo, a profoundly religious man, imbued his work with spirituality. Over 300 characters are depicted in the fresco, which tells the story of the book of Genesis, beginning with Noah at the door and concluding with the separation of Light from Darkness. The recent removal of centuries of soot and grime by renovators revealed the bright colors of the painting that had been obscured. The Apostolic Palace in Vatican City houses the renowned Sistine Chapel.

19. The School of Athens

19. The School of Athens-0

Date: 1511 "The School of Athens" is a famous Renaissance fresco painted by Raphael that represents the classical spirit of this period and is considered his masterpiece. The painting features the likenesses of ancient philosophers, including Aristotle and Plato, gathered together in one place. Despite living at different times, they are depicted in the same room. Raphael included a self-portrait of standing next to Ptolemy, gazing at the viewer. This fresco was part of his commission to decorate the Stanze di Raffaello, a set of rooms in the Apostolic Palace. Today, it is located in Vatican City and is part of the Vatican Museums collection.

18. Café Terrace At Night

18. Café Terrace At Night-0

Date: 1888 One of Van Gogh's unique masterpieces among classic paintings is The Cafe Terrace on the Place du Forum, which he painted at night in Arles, France. Despite some hostile reception at the time, the painting features a brightly lit café in contrast to the dark surroundings of the streets and starry night sky. The café patrons have been depicted dining under harsh, bright lights. As the artwork gained popularity, the café was renovated in 1991 to match the painting's depiction. The painting is now on display at the Kroller Muller Museum in Ontario.

17. Starry Night Over The Rhône

17. Starry Night Over The Rhône-0

Date: 1888 The painting 'Starry Night over the Rhone' depicts the reflection of gaslights in Arles on the blue water of the Rhone, with two lovers in the foreground and a luminous sky full of stars. Van Gogh was renting a house only a few minutes away from this spot, and he was deeply moved by the serene beauty of the night scene, as he described in a letter. This masterpiece is on display at the Musée d'Orsay in Paris, France.

16. Salvator Mundi

16. Salvator Mundi-0

Estimated Date: 1490–1500 The world was informed about the discovery of a lost painting by Leonardo da Vinci in 2011. Leonardo Da Vinci once said, "As a well-spent day brings happy sleep, so a life well spent brings happy death." A historical painting depicts a Renaissance-style dressed Jesus Christ as the Savior of the World, blessing with his right hand raised and two fingers extended on an oil-on-panel canvas. He holds a rock crystal in his other hand, symbolizing his role as the Savior of the world and the master of the cosmos. Mohammad bin Salman now owns the painting the crown prince of Saudi Arabia, acquired by Abu Dhabi's Department of Culture and Tourism for the Louvre Abu Dhabi.

15. Luncheon Of The Boating Party

15. Luncheon Of The Boating Party-0

Date: 1880–1881 Auguste Renoir's most famous artwork is "The Luncheon of the Boating Party," which showcases his versatility as an Impressionist painter. The painting takes place on the sunny balcony of Maison Fournaise, a cafe, rowboat rental, and hotel overlooking the Seine in Île-de-Chatou, Paris. It captures a joyful moment among friends and features refined brushwork and vibrant colors that reflect Renoir's three main subjects: portraiture, still-life paintings, and en plein air settings. This captivating portrait can be viewed at the Phillips Collection in Washington, DC.

14. The Flower Carrier

14. The Flower Carrier-0

Date: 1935 Diego Rivera is widely acknowledged as the greatest painter of the 20th century. His painting is full of colors, depicting a peasant man on all fours, carrying an oversized basket of flowers on his back, with a woman trying to help him as he struggles to get up. Although the flowers in the basket are stunningly beautiful, they are of no value to the man and woman in the painting. The artwork symbolizes individualism and workers' struggles in a modern capitalistic world. 'The Flower Carrier' is a simple yet meaningful painting with symbolism. It is currently on display at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in the United States.

13. A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte

13. A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte-0

Date: 1859-1891 Seurat was an ambitious young painter who aimed to prove his scientific theory. He pioneered the pointillist technique, showcased in one of the most famous paintings, depicting a sunny scene along the Seine River where Parisians take shade under trees and umbrellas while enjoying the weather. Seurat proved that the viewer's eye could blend colors optically by juxtaposing tiny dots of multi-colored paint. 'A Sunday Afternoon' is considered a pivotal work of art that revolutionized modern art. This painting has paved the way for many other critical modern artworks. It can be found at the Art Institute of Chicago in North America.

12. The Garden of Earthly Delights

12. The Garden of Earthly Delights-0

Estimated Date: 1510 and 1515 The triptych by Hieronymus Bosch, depicting creation, human futility, and damnation, portrays the fleeting nature of human life. This renowned artwork showcases the union of Adam and Eve on the left panel, a scene of earthly pleasure on the central panel, and Hell on the panel to the right. Bosch's work is celebrated for its thought-provoking symbolism and ability to tap into timeless human desires. It speaks to its viewers with relevance, illustrating the fiery fate of humanity consumed by passion and pleasure. Since 1939, the Museo del Prado in Madrid, Spain, has been the home of this well-known artwork.

11. The Girl With The Pearl Earring

11. The Girl With The Pearl Earring-0

Estimated date: 1665 Johannes Vermeer's most celebrated and enigmatic work is the Girl With a Pearl Earring painting, which exemplifies the Baroque style. This painting is renowned for its exceptional use of light, among all the famous artworks. Despite what most people believe, the Girl With a Pearl Earring painting is a Tronie. The central focus is the Girl, poised at the threshold of womanhood, adorned in a striking blue and yellow turban with a shimmering pearl. The painting is housed in the Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis, a splendid 17th-century palace in The Hague, Netherlands, with only a dark background behind her.

10. Guernica

10. Guernica-0

Date: 1937 Guernica is not merely a renowned painting; it also serves as a potent political commentary. It presents an unwavering depiction of the atrocities of war, rendering it a crucial element of 20th-century history and culture. This iconic artwork is symbolic of anti-war sentiments and an embodiment of peace. To safeguard the artwork, Picasso transported 'Guernica' in New York to the Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art during World War II and insisted that it be kept there until democracy was restored in Spain. The painting was returned to Madrid in 1981 and has been permanently displayed at the Museo Reina Sofía museum since 1992.

9. The Last Supper

9. The Last Supper-0

Estimated date: 1495 to 1498 The painting portrays Jesus sharing his last meal with his followers before he was crucified. Created during a period when religious imagery held significant prominence in art, this colossal fresco measures 4.60 meters (15 feet) in height and 8.80 meters (28.9 feet) in width. Undoubtedly, it is one of the most significant historical paintings, lauded for its revolutionary style and profound influence on artists of all generations. Regrettably, very little of this famous artwork of the Last Supper has survived due to its poor condition. Despite enduring threats during wartime and instances of vandalism, the fresco remains at the Convent of Santa Maria Delle Grazia in Milan, Italy, as one of the most iconic and cherished artworks ever produced.

8. The Scream

8. The Scream-0

Date: 1893 The artwork famously called 'The Scream' was originally named 'The Scream of Nature' and is not a single piece. Munch produced four versions of the painting, two using pastels and two using paint. This famous artwork has become a symbolic representation of the apprehension and distress prevalent in modern society. The Nouveau-style painting does not depict the figure screaming but instead attempting to silence a shrill cry emanating from nature. Munch drew inspiration for this piece during a sunset walk with two acquaintances in Oslo when an abrupt change in the weather caused a vivid red hue to overwhelm his senses. The paintings are currently on display at the National Museum and the Munch Museum in Oslo, Norway.

7. Whistler’s Mother

7. Whistler’s Mother-0

Date: 1871 James McNeill Whistler's oil on canvas painting, Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1, was created with his mother, Anna McNeill Whistler, as the subject. The artwork garnered a mixed response from critics when it was first presented. Nonetheless, Whistler succeeded in showcasing his tonal composition and harmony style, which achieved balance among the different elements in the picture. This balance improved the stability of his mother's face, dress, and chair in the portrait. Nowadays, this famous artwork can be seen at the Musée d'Orsay Museum in Paris, France, where it has been on display since 2019.

6. American Gothic

6. American Gothic-0

Date: 1930 Grant Wood's most impressive painting, created with oil on Beaver Board, is a prime example of Regionalism. This artistic movement focused on realistic depictions of rural American subjects. The artwork portrays traditional rural values during a period marked by high unemployment and poverty. Wood's inspiration came from a charming white Carpenter-Gothic-style house, and the type of people he envisioned would live there. These people included Wood's sister, Nan Wood Graham, and his dentist, Dr. Byron McKeeby, who served as models for the painting. The artwork highlights American values during uncertainty, and its ambiguous mix of praise and satire has sparked debate. This iconic artwork is considered one of the most significant paintings in American art history. The painting was initially exhibited at the Art Institute of Chicago and can still be viewed today.

5. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon

5. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon-0

Date: 1907 The painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon' by Picasso is recognized as a precursor to cubism and holds great significance in developing this art style. It has attracted much criticism due to its unconventional subject matter inspired by a brothel and its departure from traditional painting techniques. The portrayal of the female figures in the painting challenges the typical norms of beauty, creating a groundbreaking and revolutionary work of art that inspired both artists and viewers. Furthermore, the painting includes African art influences, a new and innovative addition to European painting at the time. The painting is currently displayed at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

4. Arnolfini Portrait

4. Arnolfini Portrait-0

Date: 1434 This portrait painting is renowned for its captivating visuals and is considered a historical masterpiece. The painting depicts Giovanni di Nicolao Arnolfini, an Italian businessman, and his wife, likely in their Bruges home. The brushwork is so intricate that it gives the impression of a photograph, showcasing exceptional detail and a realistic portrayal of the subject. The painting is rich in symbolism and iconography, with the most prominent symbol being the mirror in the background. Despite the room's small size, the mirror adds depth and realism to the painting, creating a unique and captivating visual experience. The painting is currently housed in the National Gallery of London, UK.

3. The Night Watch

3. The Night Watch-0

Date: 1642 Regarded as one of the most celebrated paintings ever, Rembrandt was skilled at employing light to produce a powerful impact. The Night Watch painting showcases Rembrandt's skillful manipulation of light and shadow, drawing the viewer's attention to the central characters in the scene. Moreover, Rembrandt was innovative in depicting the figures in a group portrait in motion, which was groundbreaking at the time. Another notable aspect of the painting is its size, measuring a colossal 3.63m x 4.37m. This famous artwork is displayed at the Rijksmuseum Museum in Amsterdam, Netherlands, and is widely regarded as the most famous painting in the museum's collection.

2. Water Lilies’ Series

2. Water Lilies’ Series-0

Estimated Date: 1897–99 During the final thirty years of his life, Claude Monet created a series of more than 250 paintings of water lilies. Throughout this series, he captured the ever-changing interplay of light, water, reflections, and atmosphere. As his work evolved, he shifted focus from constituent elements and orientation to obliquely structured compositions and vibrant, pure color. Monet's Water Lilies series paved the way for abstract painting and established a precedent for subsequent artists, particularly those of the Post-Impressionist, Expressionist, and Abstract-Expressionist movements. A Monet's Water Lilies series painting at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York can be viewed.

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Portrait Painting

1. The Old Guitarist – Painting by Pablo Picasso

Date: 1886 The most recognizable artwork of Picasso's Blue Period, when he struggled with financial hardship and emotional turmoil, is probably The Old Guitarist. This painting is noteworthy for a mysterious image that seems to loom beneath the surface. By conducting technical analyses and delving into art history, researchers have uncovered two earlier compositions hidden beneath the surface of The Old Guitarist. This insight offers us a deeper appreciation of Picasso's creative process. The artwork can be found in the Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection at the Art Institute of Chicago.

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